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Hydrographic research

Hydrographic research is a survey process of separate hydrosphere areas which includes scientific design, performance of hydrographic works, processing and analysis of their results. The contents of a hydrographic survey are determined by the composition and amount of the data the Orderer Customer requires.

Similar to assessment of altitude determination of large numbers of points in an area during topographic earth terrain survey, in hydrography for survey of underwater terrain depths are measured in all surveyed area. In fact, hydrographic works are a continuation of topographic and geodetic works in the areas of the World Ocean and inland waters.

But qualities of every geographic sphere and specific purposes lead to important features both in operational methods and applied means. What are these features?

First of all, the necessity of special carriers for measuring equipment. When in shore survey geodetic and topographic devices can be placed directly in any point of the surveyed area, for performance of underwater terrain survey as well as other types of hydrographic operations special platforms shall be used and duly equipped to be kept on water surface or under water. Surface vessels and deep-sea submersibles are used as such platforms. Only at complete freezing of a water zone survey can be performed directly from the ice surface.

Further, the platform with the mounted equipment shall move in order to perform survey of all water zone of the surveyed area. Consequently, its position is changing non-stop. Even if the vessel is anchored, its shift must be taken into consideration. It is evident that for attribution of measurement results to any fixed point the measurements shall be performed very fast. The said circumstance entails the following important feature of hydrographic works: they shall be accompanied with frequent and precise coordinate setting of a point in which the measurements were carried out. Ideally, it should be determined non-stop so that measurements at any moment would be linked with the real place.

Purpose of the survey is not only to reliably determine mutual location of different objects at sea, but also to specify the precise location of surveyed objects on the Earth surface. To achieve this, their planned fixing shall be made to a uniform coordinate system of the earth ellipsoid. In on-surface survey planned fixing is made with the use of geodetic networks. At sea there are no such networks, which leads to significant features of plan substantiation of hydrographic works.

The modern hydrographic survey complex includes survey of the following main elements:

  • underwater terrain;
  • sea shores;
  • sea bottom soil;
  • geophysical fields;
  • oceanographic and hydrologic characteristics.

Measurements and observations carried out in water zones and in the process of hydrographic survey are called hydrographic works.

Full complex of hydrographic works performed by our Enterprise can be found on the page “Products and Services” in the section “Complex Engineering Survey”.